A working Posix thread library is needed for the server. On Solaris 2.5 we use Sun PThreads (the native thread support in 2.4 and earlier versions are not good enough) and on Linux we use LinuxThreads by Xavier Leroy, Xavier.Leroy@inria.fr.
The hard part of porting to a new Unix variant without good native thread support is probably to port MIT-pthreads. See `mit-pthreads/README' and Programming POSIX Threads.
The MySQL distribution includes a patched version of Provenzano's Pthreads from MIT (see MIT Pthreads web page). This can be used for some operating systems that do not have POSIX threads.
It is also possible to use another user level thread package named FSU Pthreads (see FSU Pthreads home page). This implementation is being used for the SCO port.
See the `thr_lock.c' and `thr_alarm.c' programs in the `mysys' directory for some tests/examples of these problems.
Both the server and the client need a working C++ compiler (we use
and have tried SparcWorks). Another compiler that is known to work is the
To compile only the client use
There is currently no support for only compiling the server, nor is it likly to be added unless someone has a good reason for it.
If you want/need to change any `Makefile' or the configure script you must
get Automake and Autoconf. We have used the
All steps needed to remake everything from the most basic files.
/bin/rm */.deps/*.P /bin/rm -f config.cache aclocal autoheader aclocal automake autoconf ./configure --with-debug=full --prefix='your installation directory' # The makefiles generated above need GNU make 3.75 or newer. # (called gmake below) gmake clean all install init-db
If you run into problems with a new port, you may have to do some debugging of MySQL! See section G.1 Debugging a MySQL server.
NOTE: Before you start debugging
mysqld, first get the test
mysys/thr_lock to work. This
will ensure that your thread installation has even a remote chance to work!
If you are using some functionality that is very new in MySQL,
you can try to run
mysqld with the
--skip-new (which will disable all
new, potentially unsafe functionality) or with
disables a lot of optimization that may cause problems.
See section A.4.1 What To Do If MySQL Keeps Crashing.
mysqld doesn't want to start, you should check that you don't have
my.cnf files that interfere with your setup!
You can check your
my.cnf arguments with
and avoid using them by starting with
mysqld --no-defaults ....
mysqld starts to eat up CPU or memory or if it ``hangs'', you
mysqladmin processlist status to find out if someone is
executing a query that takes a long time. It may be a good idea to
mysqladmin -i10 processlist status in some window if you are
experiencing performance problems or problems when new clients can't connect.
mysqladmin debug will dump some information about
locks in use, used memory and query usage to the mysql log file. This
may help solve some problems. This command also provides some useful
information even if you haven't compiled MySQL for debugging!
If the problem is that some tables are getting slower and slower you
should try to optimize the table with
OPTIMIZE TABLE or
myisamchk. See section 4 MySQL Database Administration. You should also
check the slow queries with
You should also read the OS-specific section in this manual for problems that may be unique to your environment. See section 2.6 Operating System Specific Notes.
If you have some very specific problem, you can always try to debug
MySQL. To do this you must configure MySQL with the
--with-debug or the
--with-debug=full option. You can check
whether or not MySQL was compiled with debugging by doing:
mysqld --help. If the
--debug flag is listed with the
options then you have debugging enabled.
mysqladmin ver also
mysqld version as
mysql ... --debug in this case.
If you are using gcc or egcs, the recommended configure line is:
CC=gcc CFLAGS="-O2" CXX=gcc CXXFLAGS="-O2 -felide-constructors -fno-exceptions -fno-rtti" ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --with-debug --with-extra-charsets=complex
This will avoid problems with the
libstdc++ library and with C++
exceptions (many compilers have problems with C++ exceptions in threaded
code) and compile a MySQL version with support for all character sets.
If you suspect a memory overrun error, you can configure MySQL
--with-debug=full, which will install a memory allocation
SAFEMALLOC) checker. Running with
SAFEMALLOC is however
quite slow, so if you get performance problems you should start
mysqld with the
--skip-safemalloc option. This will
disable the memory overrun checks for each call to
mysqld stops crashing when you compile it with
--with-debug, you have probably found a compiler bug or a timing
bug within MySQL. In this case you can try to add
CXXFLAGS variables above and not use
mysqld now dies, you can at least attach
to it with
gdb or use
gdb on the core file to find out
When you configure MySQL for debugging you automatically enable a
lot of extra safety check functions that monitor the health of
If they find something ``unexpected,'' an entry will be written to
safe_mysqld directs to the error log! This also
means that if you are having some unexpected problems with MySQL and
are using a source distribution, the first thing you should do is to
configure MySQL for debugging! (The second thing, of course, is to
send mail to firstname.lastname@example.org and ask for help. Please use the
mysqlbug script for all bug reports or questions regarding the
MySQL version you are using!
In the Windows MySQL distribution,
mysqld.exe is by
default compiled with support for trace files.
mysqld server doesn't start or if you can cause the
mysqld server to crash quickly, you can try to create a trace
file to find the problem.
To do this you have to have a
mysqld that is compiled for debugging.
You can check this by executing
mysqld -V. If the version number
-debug, it's compiled with support for trace files.
mysqld server with a trace log in `/tmp/mysqld.trace'
(or `C:\mysqld.trace' on Windows):
On Windows you should also use the
--standalone flag to not start
mysqld as a service:
In a DOS window do:
mysqld --debug --standalone
After this you can use the
mysql.exe command line tool in a
second DOS window to reproduce the problem. You can take down the above
mysqld server with
Note that the trace file will get very BIG! If you want to have a smaller trace file, you can use something like:
which only prints information with the most interesting tags in `/tmp/mysqld.trace'.
If you make a bug report about this, please only send the lines from the trace file to the appropriate mailing list where something seems to go wrong! If you can't locate the wrong place, you can ftp the trace file, together with a full bug report, to ftp://support.mysql.com/pub/mysql/secret so that a MySQL developer can take a look a this.
The trace file is made with the DBUG package by Fred Fish. See section G.3 The DBUG package..
On most system you can also start
gdb to get
more information if
With some older
gdb versions on Linux you must use
--one-thread if you want to be able to debug
mysqld threads. In
this case you can only have one thread active at a time.
mysqld under gdb, you should disable the stack trace
--skip-stack-trace to be able to catch segfaults within gdb.
It's very hard to debug MySQL under
gdb if you do a lot of
new connections the whole time as
gdb doesn't free the memory for
old threads. You can avoid this problem by starting
-O thread_cache_size= 'max_connections +1'. In most cases just
-O thread_cache_size=5' will help a lot!
If you want to get a core dump on Linux if
mysqld dies with a
SIGSEGV signal, you can start
mysqld with the
This core file can be used to make a backtrace that may help you
find out why
shell> gdb mysqld core gdb> backtrace full gdb> exit
See section A.4.1 What To Do If MySQL Keeps Crashing.
If you are using gdb 4.17.x or above on Linux, you should install a `.gdb' file, with the following information, in your current directory:
set print sevenbit off handle SIGUSR1 nostop noprint handle SIGUSR2 nostop noprint handle SIGWAITING nostop noprint handle SIGLWP nostop noprint handle SIGPIPE nostop handle SIGALRM nostop handle SIGHUP nostop handle SIGTERM nostop noprint
If you have problems debugging threads with gdb, you should download gdb 5.x and try this instead. The new gdb version has very improved thread handling!
Here is an example how to debug mysqld:
shell> gdb /usr/local/libexec/mysqld gdb> run ... backtrace full # Do this when mysqld crashes
Include the above output in a mail generated with
mail this to
mysqld hangs you can try to use some system tools like
/usr/proc/bin/pstack to examine where
mysqld has hung.
strace /tmp/log libexec/mysqld
If you are using the Perl
DBI interface, you can turn on
debugging information by using the
trace method or by
DBI_TRACE environment variable.
See section 8.2.2 The
On some operating systems, the error log will contain a stack trace if
mysqld dies unexpectedly. You can use this to find out where (and
mysqld died. See section 4.9.1 The Error Log. To get a stack trace,
you should NOT compile
mysqld with the
option to gcc. See section G.1.1 Compiling MYSQL for debugging..
If the error file contains something like the following:
mysqld got signal 11; The manual section 'Debugging a MySQL server' tells you how to use a stack trace and/or the core file to produce a readable backtrace that may help in finding out why mysqld died Attemping backtrace. You can use the following information to find out where mysqld died. If you see no messages after this, something went terribly wrong stack range sanity check, ok, backtrace follows 0x40077552 0x81281a0 0x8128f47 0x8127be0 0x8127995 0x8104947 0x80ff28f 0x810131b 0x80ee4bc 0x80c3c91 0x80c6b43 0x80c1fd9 0x80c1686
you can find where
mysqld died by doing the following:
nm -n libexec/mysqld > /tmp/mysqld.symNote that many MySQL binary distributions comes with the above file, named
mysqld.sym.gz. In this case you must unpack this by doing:
gunzip < bin/mysqld.sym.gz > /tmp/mysqld.sym
resolve_stack_dump -s /tmp/mysqld.sym -n mysqld.stack. This will print out where
mysqlddied. If this doesn't help you find out why
mysqlddied, you should make a bug report and include the output from the above commend with the bug report. Note however that in most cases it will not help us to just have a stack trace to find the reason for the problem. To be able to locate the bug or provide a workaround, we would in most cases need to know the query that killed
mysqldand preferable a test case so that we can repeat the problem! See section 22.214.171.124 How to Report Bugs or Problems.
Note that before starting
--log you should
check all your tables with
See section 4 MySQL Database Administration.
mysqld dies or hangs, you should start
mysqld dies again, you can examine the end of
the log file for the query that killed
If you are using
--log without a file name, the log is stored in
the database directory as 'hostname'.log In most cases it's the last
query in the log file that killed
mysqld, but if possible you
should verify this by restarting
mysqld and executing the found
query from the
mysql command line tools. If this works, you
should also test all complicated queries that didn't complete.
You can also try the command
EXPLAIN on all
statements that takes a long time to ensure that
mysqld is using
indexes properly. See section 5.2.1
EXPLAIN Syntax (Get Information About a
You can find the queries that take a long time to execute by starting
--log-slow-queries. See section 4.9.5 The Slow Query Log.
If you find the text
mysqld restarted in the error log file
(normally named `hostname.err') you have probably found a query
mysqld to fail. If this happens you should check all
your tables with
myisamchk (see section 4 MySQL Database Administration),
and test the queries in the MySQL log files to see if one doesn't
work. If you find such a query, try first upgrading to the newest
MySQL version. If this doesn't help and you can't find anything
mysql mail archive, you should report the bug to
email@example.com. Links to mail archives are available
online at the MySQL
If you have started
MySQL will automatically check and try to repair
tables if they are marked as 'not closed properly' or 'crashed'. If
this happens, MySQL will write an entry in the
'Warning: Checking table ...' which is
Warning: Repairing table if the table needs to be
repaired. If you get a lot of these errors, without
died unexpectedly just before, then something is wrong and needs to
be investigated further. See section 4.1.1 mysqld Command-line Options.
It's of course not a good sign if
mysqld did died unexpectedly,
but in this case one shouldn't investigate the
messages but instead try to find out why
If you get corrupted tables or if
mysqld always fails after some
update commands, you can test if this bug is reproducible by doing the
myisamchk -s database/*.MYI. Repair any wrong tables with
myisamchk -r database/table.MYI.
--log-binary. See section 4.9.4 The Binary Update Log. If you want to find a query that crashes
mysqld, you should use
mysqlbinlog update-log-file | mysql. The update log is saved in the MySQL database directory with the name
mysqldto die with the above command, you have found reproducible bug that should be easy to fix! FTP the tables and the binary log to ftp://support.mysql.com/pub/mysql/secret and send a mail to firstname.lastname@example.org or (if you are a support customer) to email@example.com about the problem and the MySQL team will fix it as soon as possible.
You can also use the script
mysql_find_rows to just execute some of the
update statements if you want to narrow down the problem.
To be able to debug a MySQL client with the integrated debug package,
you should configure MySQL with
--with-debug=full. See section 2.3.3 Typical
Before running a client, you should set the
shell> MYSQL_DEBUG=d:t:O,/tmp/client.trace shell> export MYSQL_DEBUG
This causes clients to generate a trace file in `/tmp/client.trace'.
If you have problems with your own client code, you should attempt to
connect to the server and run your query using a client that is known to
work. Do this by running
mysql in debugging mode (assuming you
have compiled MySQL with debugging on):
shell> mysql --debug=d:t:O,/tmp/client.trace
This will provide useful information in case you mail a bug report. See section 126.96.36.199 How to Report Bugs or Problems.
If your client crashes at some 'legal' looking code, you should check that your `mysql.h' include file matches your mysql library file. A very common mistake is to use an old `mysql.h' file from an old MySQL installation with new MySQL library.
The MySQL server and most MySQL clients are compiled with the DBUG package originally made by Fred Fish. When one has configured MySQL for debugging, this package makes it possible to get a trace file of what the program is debugging. See section G.1.2 Creating trace files.
One uses the debug package by invoking the program with the
--debug="..." or the
Most MySQL programs has a default debug string that will be
used if you don't specify an option to
--debug. The default
trace file is usually
/tmp/programname.trace on Unix and
\programname.trace on Windows.
The debug control string is a sequence of colon separated fields as follows:
Each field consists of a mandatory flag character followed by an optional "," and comma-separated list of modifiers:
The currently recognized flag characters are:
|d||Enable output from DBUG_<N> macros for the current state. May be followed by a list of keywords which selects output only for the DBUG macros with that keyword. An empty list of keywords implies output for all macros.|
|D|| Delay after each debugger output line. The argument is the number of tenths of seconds to delay, subject to machine capabilities. That is, |
|f||Limit debugging and/or tracing, and profiling to the list of named functions. Note that a null list will disable all functions. The appropriate "d" or "t" flags must still be given, this flag only limits their actions if they are enabled.|
|F||Identify the source file name for each line of debug or trace output.|
|i||Identify the process with the pid or thread id for each line of debug or trace output.|
|g||Enable profiling. Create a file called 'dbugmon.out' containing information that can be used to profile the program. May be followed by a list of keywords that select profiling only for the functions in that list. A null list implies that all functions are considered.|
|L||Identify the source file line number for each line of debug or trace output.|
|n||Print the current function nesting depth for each line of debug or trace output.|
|N||Number each line of dbug output.|
|o||Redirect the debugger output stream to the specified file. The default output is stderr.|
|O|| As |
|p||Limit debugger actions to specified processes. A process must be identified with the DBUG_PROCESS macro and match one in the list for debugger actions to occur.|
|P||Print the current process name for each line of debug or trace output.|
|r||When pushing a new state, do not inherit the previous state's function nesting level. Useful when the output is to start at the left margin.|
|S||Do function _sanity(_file_,_line_) at each debugged function until _sanity() returns something that differs from 0. (Mostly used with safemalloc to find memory leaks)|
|t||Enable function call/exit trace lines. May be followed by a list (containing only one modifier) giving a numeric maximum trace level, beyond which no output will occur for either debugging or tracing macros. The default is a compile time option.|
Some examples of debug control strings which might appear on a shell command line (the "-#" is typically used to introduce a control string to an application program) are:
-#d:t -#d:f,main,subr1:F:L:t,20 -#d,input,output,files:n -#d:t:i:O,\\mysqld.trace
In MySQL, common tags to print (with the
d option) are:
Currently MySQL only supports table locking for
HEAP tables and page level locking
BDB tables. See section 5.3.1 How MySQL Locks Tables. With
tables one can freely mix
SELECT without locks
Starting in version 3.23.33, you can analyze the table lock contention
on your system by checking
Table_locks_immediate environment variables.
Some database users claim that MySQL cannot support near the number of concurrent users because it lacks row-level locking. This may be true for some specific applications, but is not generally true. As always this depends totally on what the application does and what is the access/update pattern of the data.
Pros for row locking:
GROUP BYon a large part of the data or if one has to often scan the whole table.
Table locks are superior to page level / row level locks in the following cases:
UPDATE table_name SET column=value WHERE unique_key# DELETE FROM table_name WHERE unique_key=#
INSERT(and very few
GROUP BYon the whole table without any writers.
Other options than row / page level locking:
Versioning (like we use in MySQL for concurrent inserts) where you can have one writer at the same time as many readers. This means that the database/table supports different views for the data depending on when one started to access it. Other names for this are time travel, copy on write or copy on demand.
Copy on demand is in many case much better than page or row level locking; The worst case does, however, use much more memory than when using normal locks.
Instead of using row level locks one can use application level locks. (Like get_lock/release_lock in MySQL). This works of course only in well-behaved applications.
In many cases one can do an educated guess which locking type is best for the application but generally it's very hard to say that a given lock type is better than another; Everything depends on the application and different part of the application may require different lock types.
Here are some tips about locking in MySQL:
On web application most applications do lots of selects, very few deletes, updates mainly on keys and inserts in some specific tables. The base MySQL setup is VERY tuned for this.
Concurrent users is not a problem if one doesn't mix updates and selects that needs to examine many rows in the same table.
If one mixes inserts and deletes on the same table then
may be of great help.
One can also use
LOCK TABLES to speed up things (many updates within
a single lock is much faster than updates without locks). Splitting
thing to different tables will also helps.
If you get speed problems with the table locks in MySQL, you
may be able to solve these to convert some of your tables to
See section 7.5 BDB or Berkeley_DB Tables.
The optimization section in the manual covers a lot of different aspects of how to tune ones application. See section 5.2.11 Other Optimization Tips.
I have tried to use the RTS thread packages with MySQL but stumbled on the following problems:
They use an old version of a lot of POSIX calls and it is very tedious to make wrappers for all functions. I am inclined to think that it would be easier to change the thread libraries to the newest POSIX specification.
Some wrappers are already written. See `mysys/my_pthread.c' for more info.
At least the following should be changed:
pthread_get_specific should use one argument.
sigwait should take two arguments.
A lot of functions (at least
should return the error code on error. Now they return -1 and set
Another problem is that user-level threads use the
ALRM signal and this
aborts a lot of functions (
MySQL should do a retry on interrupt on all of these but it is
not that easy to verify it.
The biggest unsolved problem is the following:
To get thread-level alarms I changed `mysys/thr_alarm.c' to wait between
pthread_cond_timedwait(), but this aborts with error
EINTR. I tried to debug the thread library as to why this happens,
but couldn't find any easy solution.
If someone wants to try MySQL with RTS threads I suggest the following:
thr_alarm. If it runs without any ``warning'', ``error'' or aborted messages, you are on the right track. Here is a successful run on Solaris:
Main thread: 1 Thread 0 (5) started Thread: 5 Waiting process_alarm Thread 1 (6) started Thread: 6 Waiting process_alarm process_alarm thread_alarm Thread: 6 Slept for 1 (1) sec Thread: 6 Waiting process_alarm process_alarm thread_alarm Thread: 6 Slept for 2 (2) sec Thread: 6 Simulation of no alarm needed Thread: 6 Slept for 0 (3) sec Thread: 6 Waiting process_alarm process_alarm thread_alarm Thread: 6 Slept for 4 (4) sec Thread: 6 Waiting process_alarm thread_alarm Thread: 5 Slept for 10 (10) sec Thread: 5 Waiting process_alarm process_alarm thread_alarm Thread: 6 Slept for 5 (5) sec Thread: 6 Waiting process_alarm process_alarm ... thread_alarm Thread: 5 Slept for 0 (1) sec end
MySQL is very dependent on the thread package used. So when choosing a good platform for MySQL, the thread package is very important.
There are at least three types of thread packages:
psmay show the different threads. If one thread aborts, the whole process aborts. Most system calls are thread safe and should require very little overhead. Solaris, HP-UX, AIX and OSF1 have kernel threads.
In some systems kernel threads are managed by integrating user level threads in the system libraries. In such cases, the thread switching can only be done by the thread library and the kernel isn't really ``thread aware''.
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